Penn State Castleman Group

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Publications 1991-2000, #296–507

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296. "A Consideration of the Chemistry of Radon Progeny," A. W. Castleman, Jr., Environ. Sci. Tech., 25, 730-35 (1991).

297. "The Structure of Protonated Solvation Complexes: Ammonia-Trimethylamine Cluster Ions, and Their Metastable Decompositions," S. Wei, W. B. Tzeng and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 585-91 (1991).

298. "The Thermodynamics of Gas-Phase Mixed Solvent Cluster Ions: Water and Methanol on K+ and Cl- and Comparison to Liquid Solutions," D. H. Evans, R. G. Keesee, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 3558-64 (1991).

299. "Production and Magic Numbers of Large Hydrated Anion Clusters X-(H2O)N =0-59, X=OH, O, O2 and O3, Under Thermal Conditions," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8500-02 (1990); "Erratum", J. Phys. Chem. 94, 8974 (1990).

300. "Stabilities and Structures of Gas Phase MgO Clusters," P. J. Ziemann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 94, 718-28 (1991).

301. "Aluminum Cluster Reactions," R. E. Leuchtner, A. C. Harms, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1093-1101 (1991).

302. "Metastable Unimolecular and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Hydrogen-Bonded Clusters: Evidence for Intracluster Molecular Rearrangement and the Structure of Solvated Protonated Complexes," S. Wei, W. B. Tzeng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 1960-69 (1991).

303. "Reaction of Group V and VI Transition Metal Oxide and Oxyhydroxide Anions with O2, H2O, and HCl," S. W. Sigsworth and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 10471-10477 (1992).

304. "Metastable Decay of Stoichiometric and Non-Stoichiometric Nitrogen Cluster Ions," G. Walder, M. Foltin, T. Stefanson, A. W. Castleman, Jr. and T. D. Märk, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 107, 127-134 (1991).

305. "Magic Metastable Decay of Singly Charged Argon Clusters," M. Foltin, G. Walder, A. W. Castleman, Jr., and T. D. Märk, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 810-11 (1991).

306. "Metastable Decay of Arn+ Involving Single Monomer Evaporation and the Loss of Peculiar Numbers of Monomers," M. Foltin, G. Walder, S. Mohr, P. Scheier, A. W. Castleman, Jr., and T. D. Märk, Z. Phys. D. 20, 157-159 (1991).

307. "The Clustering Reactions of Na+ and Pb+ with Several Important Ligands," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D. 19, 397-399 (1991).

308. "Gas Phase Reactivity of Thermal Metal Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., A. C. Harms, and R. E. Leuchtner, Z. Phys. D. 19, 343-346 (1991).

309. "Stable Shell Structures in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes," S. Wei, W. B. Tzeng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D. 20, 47-51 (1991).

310. "Mass Spectrometric Study of MgO Clusters Produced by the Gas Aggregation Technique," P. J. Ziemann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D. 20, 97-99 (1991).

311. "Evidence of Cyclic Structures in Protonated Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes," S. Wei, W. B. Tzeng and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 178, 411-18 (1991).

312. "Atom Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 2, pp 236-239, McGraw-Hill Publishers (1992).

313. "Mixed Cluster Ions as a Structure Probe: Experimental Evidence for Clathrate Structure of (H2O)20H+ and (H2O)21H+," S. Wei, Z. Shi, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 94, 3268-3270 (1991).

314. "Solvated Cluster Ions," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Clusters of Atoms and Molecules II (H. Haberland, Ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 77-133 (1994).

315. "Reactions of O2H- and Its Hydrates with CH3CN, CO2 and SO2," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 179, 361-66 (1991).

316. "Cluster Ion Dip Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonded Phenol(H2O)n Clusters, n=0-4," R. J. Stanley and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7744-56 (1991).

317. "Kinetics and Mechanism Studies of Large Protonated Water Clusters, H+(H2O)N, N=1-60, at Thermal Energy," X. Yang, X. Zhang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 109, 339-354 (1991).

318. "Stability, Structure and Binding Energies of Solvated Cluster Ions: Ammonia-Acetonitrile and Ammonia-Acetaldehyde Systems," W. B. Tzeng, S. Wei, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5757-63 (1991).

319. "Temperature and Cluster Size Dependence Studies of Reactions of Protonated Water Clusters with Acetonitrile," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 95, 130-134 (1991).

320. "Multiphoton Ionization of Ether Clusters: Intracluster Ion-Molecule Reactions and Metastable Decompositions," S. Wei, W. B. Tzeng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5080-85 (1991).

321. "The Bonding Strength of Ag+(C2H4) and Ag+(C2H4)2 Complexes," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 16-20 (1991).

322. "Chemistry of Large Hydrated Anion Clusters X-(H2O)n, 0 n 50 and X = OH, O2, and O3, 1. Reaction of CO2 and Possible Application in Understanding of Enzymatic Reaction Dynamics," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 6766-6771 (1991).

323. "Evaporative Dissociation of Ammonia Cluster Ions: Quantification of Decay Fractions and Isotope Effects," S. Wei, K. Kilgore, W. B. Tzeng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8306-8309 (1991).

324. "Chemistry of Large Hydrated Anion Clusters X-(H2O)N, N=0-59 and X=OH, O. O2, and O3, III: Reaction of SO2," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 6182-86 (1991).

325. "Chemistry of Large Hydrated Anion Clusters X-(H2O)N, N=0-59 and X=OH, O, O2, and O3, II: Reaction of CH3CN," X. Yang, X. Zhang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8520-8524 (1991).

326. "Elucidating the Origin of Magic Numbers: Trends in the Relative Binding Energies of Xenon Cluster Ions and Their Implications," S. Wei, Z. Shi, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8604-07 (1991).

327. "Mass Spectrometric Study of the Formation, Evaporation, and Structural Properties of Doubly Charged MgO Clusters," P. J. Ziemann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 44, 6488-99 (1991).

328. "Evidence for the Polymerization of Ethylene Catalyzed by Ti+ in the Gas Phase," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Soc. for Mass Spectrom. 3, 464-466 (1992).

329. "Solvation Effects on the Structure and Reactivity of Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Quantum Chemistry 25, 527-544 (1991).

330. "Kinetic Study of Neutral Lead Cluster Reactions," R. W. Farley, P. J. Ziemann, R. G. Keesee, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D. 25, 267-273 (1993).

331. "Magic Numbers in Atomic Clusters: Energetic Electronic and Structural Effects," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Clustering Phenomena in Atoms and Nuclei (M. Brenner, T. Lönnroth, and F. B. Malik, Eds.), Springer-Verlag, pp 99-109 (1992).

332. "Effects of Ligands on the Reactivity of V+ and Ti+ Toward Dehydrogenation of Ethylene," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 113, R1-R5 (1992).

333. "Laboratory Studies of Large Protonated Water Clusters Under the Conditions of Formation of Noctilucent Clouds (NLC) in the Summer Mesopause," X. Yang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22,573-22,578 (1991).

334. "Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for Ar3+," Z. Y. Chen, B. D. May, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D. 23, 239-246 (1993).

335. "Study of Protonated Methanol Cluster Ions Under Thermal Conditions," X. Zhang, X. Yang, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 185, 298-302 (1991).

336. "Evidence for the Encagement of Alkali Metal Ions Through the Formation of Gas-Phase Clathrates: Cs+ in Water Clusters," A. Selinger and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8442-8444 (1991).

337. "Reactions and Properties of Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Advances in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 12, pp 167-189, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1992; also in Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 118/119, 167-189 (1992).

338. "Encagement of Alkali Metal Ions in Gas-Phase Water Clusters," A. Selinger and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems, pp 1137-1140 (1992).

339. "Magic Numbers of Metal and Metal Alloy Clusters and Their Chemical Reactivity," Y. Yamada and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems, pp. 1165-1169 (1992).

340. "Studies Reactions of Small Titanium Oxide Cluster Cations Toward Oxygen at Thermal Energies," B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 117, 129-144 (1992).

341. "Chemistry and Kinetics of Size Selected Cobalt Cation Clusters at Thermal Energies: 1. Reactions with CO", B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8177-8186 (1992).

342. "Chemistry and Kinetics of Primary Reactions of Ti+ with H2O, NH3, CH3OH, C2H4, and C3H6 at Thermal Energies," B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4879-4833 (1992).

343. "Mass-Spectrometric Investigation of the Stabilities and Structures of Mn-O and Mn-Mg-O Clusters," P. J. Ziemann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 46, 482-483 (1992).

344. "Structures and Bonding Properties of Ca-O Clusters Inferred from Mass Spectral Abundance Patterns," P. J. Ziemann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4271-4276 (1992).

345. "Chemistry and Kinetics of Size Selected Cobalt Cation Clusters at Thermal Energies: 2. Reactions with O2," B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6931-6937 (1992).

346. "Dehydrogenation of Ethylene and Propylene and Ethylene Polymerization Induced by Ti+ in the Gas Phase," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 6152-6158 (1992).

347. "Magic Numbers of Sodium/Antimony-Clusters Produced by Gas Aggregation and Subsequent Photoionization," A. Hartmann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems, pp 1121-1124 (1992).

348. "Ti8C12+ -- Metallo-Carbohedrenes: A New Class of Molecular Clusters?," B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Science 255, 1411-1413 (1992).

349. "Influence of Solvation of Dehydration Reactions of Alkali Metal Methanol Cluster Ions," X. Zhang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 8607-8610 (1992).

350. "The Formation, Growth and Nucleation of Water Cluster Ions," A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc. 9th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, St. Petersburg, USSR, June 15-19, 1992, pp 67-71 (1992).

351. "Ion Dip Spectroscopy of Phenol-OD and Phenol-OD(D2O)1," R. J. Stanley and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 98, 796-799 (1993).

352. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes [M8C12+ (M=V, Zr, Hf and Ti)]: A Class of Stable Molecular Cluster Ions," B. C. Guo, S. Wei, J. Purnell, S. Buzza and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Science 256, 515-516 (1992).

353. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes as a Class of Stable Neutral Clusters: Formation Mechanism of M8C12 (M = Ti and V)," S. Wei, B. C. Guo, J. Purnell, S. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4166-4168 (1992).

354. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes: Formation of Multi-Cage Structures," S. Wei, B. C. Guo, J. Purnell, S. Buzza and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Science 256, 818-820 (1992).

355. "The Magic Numbers of Metal and Metal Alloy Clusters," Y. Yamada and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 97, 4543-4548 (1992).

356. "Generation of Metal-Carbon and Metal-Nitrogen Clusters with a Laser Induced Plasma Technique," B. C. Guo, S. Wei, Z. Chen, J. Purnell, S. Buzza, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5243-5245 (1992).

357. "Reaction Channels in a Plasma Reactor-Laser Vaporization Source: Formation of Carbon Clusters and Metal-Carbon Clusters," Z. Y. Chen, B. C. Guo, B. May, S. Cartier and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 198, 118-122 (1992).

358. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes -- A New Class of Molecular Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., B. C. Guo, and S. Wei, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 6 Nos. 23 & 24, 3587-3594 (1992); Proc. Adriatico Research Conference on Cluster and Fullerenes, Trieste, Italy (V. Kumas, T. P. Martin, E. Tosatti, Eds.) World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, pp 3-10 (1993).

359. "Reactions of Metal Oxide Anions," R. G. Keesee, B. Chen, A. C. Harms and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 123, 225-231 (1993).

360. "Laser Plasma Reactors: Forming Met-Cars -- A New Class of Cluster Materials," A. W. Castleman, Jr., B. C. Guo, S. Wei and Z. Y. Chen, in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 34 (K. Lackner and W. Lindinger, Eds.), pp 2047-2051, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1992).

361. "Dehydrogenation of Gaseous Hydrogen-Containing Molecules: The Formation of Elemental and Molecular Clusters," Z. Y. Chen, G. J. Walder, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Phys. Rev. B 49, 2739- 2752 (1994).

362. "Growth of Titanium Nitride: From Cluster to Microcrystal," Z. Y. Chen and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 98, 231-235 (1993).

363. "Clathrate Structures in Water-Methanol Mixed Clusters," Z. Shi, S. Wei, J. V. Ford, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 142-146 (1992).

364. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes--A New Class of Molecular Clusters," B. C. Guo and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Advances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters (M. Duncan, Ed.), Vol. 2, pp 137-164, JAI Press (1994).

365. "Copper/Antimony and Copper/Bismuth Alloy Clusters: Magic Numbers and Electronic Structure," Y. Yamada, H. T. Deng, E. M. Snyder, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 203, 330-336 (1993).

366. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes," A. W. Castleman, Jr., 1994 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, pp 263-265 (1993).

367. "Metallo-Carbohedrenes," A. W. Castleman, Jr., Z. Phys. D., 26, 159-161 (1993).

368. "Femtosecond Multiphoton Ionization of Ammonia Clusters," S. Wei, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, R. J. Stanley and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 97, 9480-9482 (1992).

369. "Generation of Met-Car Clusters from Titanium and Graphite Powders," Z. Y. Chen, G. J. Walder and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9581-9582 (1992).

370. "Laser Induced Plasma Dehydrogenation: The Formation of New Type Clusters," Z. Y. Chen and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc., 40th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, pp. 1480-1481 (1992).

371. "Gas Phase Copper Carbide Clusters," Y. Yamada and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 204, 133-138 (1993).

372. "Gas Phase Copper/Selenium and Silver/Selenium Clusters," Y. Yamada, H. T. Deng and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Mater. 5, 1085-1088 (1993).

373. "The Discovery of Met-Cars," A. W. Castleman, Jr., R&D Innovator 2, pp 1,6,7,10, February 1993.

374. "Reactivities of Ti8C12+ at Thermal Energies," B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 7415-7418 (1993).

375. "Production of Metallo-Carbohedrenes in the Solid State," S.F. Cartier, Z. Y. Chen, G. J. Walder, C. R. Sleppy, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Science 260, 195-196 (1993).

376. "Cluster Ion Dip Spectroscopy," R. J. Stanley and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping (H. L. Dai and R. W. Field, Eds.) World Scientific pp 689-730 (1995).

377. "Ultrafast Reaction Dynamics of Electronically Excited à State of Ammonia Clusters," S. Wei, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 755-757 (1993).

378. "Metastable Dissociation of Met-Cars: Reaction Channels and Cluster Stabilities," S. Wei, B. C. Guo, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 97, 9559-9561 (1993); Additions and Corrections, J. Phys Chem. 98, 9682 (1994).

379. "Elucidating the Influence of Solvation on the Dynamics of Cluster Reactions," A. W. Castleman, Jr., S. Wei, J. Purnell and S. A. Buzza, in Reaction Dynamics in Clusters and Condensed Phases, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Holland, pp 1-12 (1994).

380. "Formation of Protonated Ammonia Clusters Probed by a Femtosecond Laser," and (Introductory Remarks - 12423-12424), J. Purnell, S. Wei, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 97, 12530-12534 (1993).

381. "Water Clusters: Contributions of Binding Energy and Entropy to Stability," Z. Shi, J. V. Ford, S. Wei, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 8009-8015 (1993).

382. "Using Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Techniques to Investigate Cluster Dynamics and Bonding," S. Wei and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 131, 233-264 (1994).

383. "Reactions of Water Cluster Ions With Nitric Acid," X. Zhang, E. L. Mereand, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 98, 3554-3557 (1994).

384. "Dehydrogenation Reactions in Mg+(H2O)n Clusters," A. C. Harms, S. N. Khanna, B. Chen, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3540-3544 (1994).

385. "Formation and Metastable Decomposition of Unprotonated Ammonia Cluster Ions Upon Femtosecond Ionization," S. A. Buzza, S. Wei, J. Purnell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4832-4841 (1995).

386. "Growth Pattern of Zirconium-Carbon Clusters: Face-Centered Cubic or Multicage Structures?", S. Wei and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 227, 305-311 (1994).

387. "Cluster Reactions of Sulfur Trioxide and Ammonia," Z. Shi, J. V. Ford, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 274-280 (1994).

388. "Met-Cars: A New Class of Cluster Materials," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Recent Advances in the Physics and Chemistry of Fullerenes, (K. M. Kadish and R. Ruoff, Eds.) Electrochemical Society, NJ, pp 346-359 (1994).

389. "The Production of Metallocarbohedrenes by the Direct Laser Vaporization of the Carbides of Titanium and Zirconium," S. F. Cartier, B. D. May, B. J. Toleno, J. Purnell, S. Wei, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 23-28 (1994).

390. "TixZryC12 and TixHfyC12 (x+y=8): Mixed Metal Metallocarbohedrenes," S. F. Cartier, B. D. May, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 100, 5384-5386 (1994).

391. "Femtosecond Chemistry: The Berlin Conference," Introductory Remarks by J. Manz and A. W.. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 97, 12425-12426 (1993).

392. "Reactions of N2O5 with Protonated Water Clusters H+(H2O)n, n = 3-30," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8606-8610 (1994).

393. "Formation of Met-Cars and Face-Centered Cubic Structures: Thermodynamically or Kinetically Controlled?," S. Wei, B. C. Guo, H. T. Deng, K. Kerns, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 4475-4476 (1994).

394. "Multiphoton Ionization of Hydrogen Bonded Clusters Using Ultra-Fast Laser Techniques," S. Wei, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, E. M. Snyder and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Femtosecond Chemistry (J. Manz and L. Wöste, Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp 449-474 (1994).

395. "Evidence for the Formation of Clathrate Structures of Protonated Water-Methanol Clusters at Thermal Energy," X. Zhang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1157-1164 (1994).

396. "Binary Metal Metallocarbohedrenes of Titanium and Group IIIA, VA, and VIA Metals," S. F. Cartier, B. D. May, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5295-5297 (1994).

397. "Cluster Reactions," A. W. Castleman, Jr. and S. Wei, in Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 685-719 (1994).

398. "Studies of the Metastable Decay of Met-Cars: The Vanadium and Niobium Systems," J. Purnell, S. Wei, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 105-110 (1994).

399. "Formation and Stability of Metallocarbohedrenes: TixMyC12 (x+y=8, M=Nb, Ta, Y, and Si)," H. T. Deng, B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 138, 275-281 (1994).

400. "Gas Phase Antimony/Magnesium/Oxygen Clusters," H. T. Deng, Y. Okada, M. Foltin, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 98, 9350-9353 (1994).

401. "The Production and Properties of Met-Cars," A. W. Castleman, Jr. and B. C. Guo, in Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, "New Horizons for Materials" (P Vincenzini, Ed.) Techna Srl, pp 125-133 (1995).

402. "Collision Induced Dissociation of Titanium-Carbon Cluster Cations," K. P. Kerns, B. C. Guo, H. T. Deng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 8529-8534 (1994).

403. "Reactions of Titanium-Carbon Cluster Cations with Acetone: New Evidence for the Stability of the Met-Cars," K. P. Kerns, B. C. Guo, H. T. Deng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 4026-4029 (1995).

404. "Gas Phase Reactions of the Met-Cars Ti8C12+, Nb8C12+, Ti7NbC12+ with Acetone and Methyl Iodide," H. T. Deng, B. C. Guo, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 98, 13373-13378 (1994).

405. "Mass Spectral and Computational Free Energy Studies of Alkali Metal Ion-Containing Water Clusters," E. A. Steel, K. M. Merz, Jr., A. Selinger, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem., 99, 7829 (1995).

406. "Ultrafast Laser Induced Coulomb Explosion of Clusters with High Charge States," J. Purnell, E. M. Snyder, S. Wei, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 333-339 (1994).

407. "Met-Cars: A New Family of Metal-Carbon Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Applications of Organometallic Chemistry in the Preparation and Processing of Advanced Materials (J. F. Harrod and R. M. Laine, Eds.) NATO ASI Series E: Appl. Sci., Vol. 297, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 269-281 (1995).

408. "Gas Phase Reactions of N2O5 with X-(H2O)n; X=O, OH, O2, HO2 and O3," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 99, 1792-1798 (1995).

409. "Molecular Materials: Metallocarbohedrenes," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in 1996 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill Publishers, pp 211-213 (1996).

410. "Kinetic Study of Protonated Methanol Clusters with Acetonitrile at Room Temperature," X. Zhang and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 149/150, 521-527 (1995).

411. "Reaction Dynamics in Femtosecond and Microsecond Time Windows: Ammonia Clusters as a Paradigm," S. Wei and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Chemical Reactions in Clusters (E. R. Bernstein, Ed.) Oxford University Press, pp 197-220 (1996).

412. "van der Waals Molecules II: Introduction," A. W. Castleman, Jr. and P. Hobza (Guest Editors), Chem. Rev. 94, 1721-1722 (1994).

413. "Gas Phase Reactions of N2O5 with NO2-(H2O)n=0,2, NO3-(H2O)n=1,2 and NO-n=2,3HNO2," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9228-9234 (1995).

414. "Gas-Phase Reactions of HO2-CO2 with Molecular Species of Possible Atmospheric Interest," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6601-6607 (1995).

415. "Delayed Ionization and Delayed Atomic Ion Emission of Ti and V Metallocarbohedrenes: Evidence for Collective Electronic Effects," B. D. May, S. F. Cartier and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 265-272 (1995).

416. "Dynamics of Cluster Ionization Following Multiphoton Absorption of High Intensity Ultrafast Laser Pulses," A. W. Castleman, Jr., E. M. Snyder, S. A. Buzza, J. Purnell, and S. Wei, in Structures and Dynamics of Clusters (T. Kondow, K. Kaya, A. Terasaki, Eds.) Universal Academy, Tokyo, pp 175-190 (1996).

417. "Studies of Met-Car Adducts: Ti8C12+(M)n (M=halogens, -bonding molecules and polar molecules)", H. T. Deng, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 446-450 (1996). 417.

418. "Dynamics of Cluster Reactions and Ionization: From Semiconductor to Hydrogen-Bonded/van der Waals Systems," A. W. Castleman, Jr., B. D. May, S. F. Cartier, K. P. Kerns, H. T. Deng, E. M. Snyder, and S. A. Buzza, NATO ASI Series on Large Clusters of Atoms and Molecules, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 371-404 (1996).

419. "Gas Phase Reactions of Cl2O with NO-x=2,3(D2O)n=0-2 and Cl-(D2O)n=0-2," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 99, 15678-15685 (1995).

420. "Probing the Structure and Dynamics of Cage-Like Clusters: From Water to Met-Cars," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Atomic and Nuclear Clusters (G. S. Anagnostatos and W. von Oertzen, Eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 160-166 (1995).

421. "Thermal Energy Reaction Rates of Titanium Monomer Cations," R. S. MacTaylor, W. C. Vann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem., 100, 5329-5333 (1996).

422. "Real-Time Dynamics of Ammonia Clusters Excited Through the à State: Formation of the Protonated Cluster Ions," E. M. Snyder, J. Purnell, S. Wei, S. A. Buzza and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. 207, 355-366 (1996).

423. "Cage-Like Molecular Clusters," A. W. Castleman, Jr., The Chemical Intelligencer, pp 46-47, October (1995).

424. "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Coulomb Explosion of Ammonia Clusters," E. M. Snyder, S. Wei, J. Purnell, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 1-7 (1996).

425. "Gas-Phase Reactions of DNO3 with X-• (D2O)n, X = O, OD, O2, DO2 and O3," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7488-7493 (1996).

426. "Metastable Dissociation Study of Nitric Oxide Clusters," Z. Shi, L. Poth, Q Zhong, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 101, 1099-1103 (1997).

427. "The Formation, Structure, and Reactivities of Niobium Oxide Cluster Ions," H. T. Deng, K. P. Kerns, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13387-13392 (1996).

428. "Intracluster Excited State and Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics of Weakly Bound Clusters," S. A. Buzza, E. M. Snyder, D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Femtochemistry: Ultrafast Chemical and Physical Processes in Molecular Systems (M. Chergui, Ed.) World Scientific, Singapore, pp 149-156 (1996).

429. "The Delayed Ionization and Atomic Ion Emission of Binary Metal Metallocarbohedrenes TixMyC12 (M = Zr, Nb; 0 y 4; x + y = 8)," S. F. Cartier, B. D. May and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 104, 3423-3432 (1996).

430. "The Oxidation Induced Formation of Met-Car Ions," H. T. Deng, K. P. Kerns and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys.104, 4862-4864 (1996).

431. "Further Direct Evidence for Stepwise Dissociation of Acetone and Acetone Clusters," S. A. Buzza, E. M. Snyder and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 104, 5040-5047 (1996). 431.

432. "Study of the Reaction of NO-Clusters with Water Using a Pickup Technique," L. Poth, Z. Shi, Q. Zhong and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 154, 35-42 (1996).

433. "On the Formation, Structure and Stabilities of Metallocarbohedrenes," S. F. Cartier, B. D. May and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8175-8179 (1996).

434. "Collision Induced Dissociation of Vanadium-Carbon Cluster Cations," K. P. Kerns, B. C. Guo, H. T. Deng and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16817-16821 (1996).

435. "Delayed Ionization of and Delayed Atomic Emission from Metallocarbohedrenes," B. D. May, S. F. Cartier, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Science and Technology of Atomically Engineered Materials (P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, Eds.) World Scientific, Singapore, pp 207-214 (1996).

436. "Observation of Atomic-Like Resonance in Multiphoton Ionization Spectra of (CaO)nCam and (MgO)nMgm Clusters," M. Foltin, H. Sakurai and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Science and Technology of Atomically Engineered Materials (P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, Eds.) World Scientific, Singapore, pp 257-262 (1996).

437. "Reactivity of NO with Anionic Water Clusters A-(X2O)n, A = O, OX, O2 and XO2, X = D and H. Formation of (NO)2 and N2O3 and Their Reactions," H. Wincel, E. Mereand and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16808-16816 (1996).

438. "Clusters: Structure, Energetics, and Dynamics of Intermediate States of Matter," A. W. Castleman, Jr. and K. H. Bowen, Jr., Centennial Issue of J. Phys. Chem. 100, 12911-12944 (1996).

439. "Femtosecond Excitation Dynamics of Acetone: Dissociation, Ionization and the Evolution of Multiply Charged Elemental Species," S. A. Buzza, E. M. Snyder, D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 105, 7425-7431 (1996).

440. "The Influence of Solvation on Ion-Molecule Reactions," A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Advances in Gas Phase Ion Chemistry (L. M. Babcock and N. G. Adams, Eds.) JAI Press, CT, Vol. 3, pp 185-253 (1998).

441. "Intense Field-Matter Interactions: Multiple Ionization Clusters," E. M. Snyder, S. A. Buzza and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3347-3349 (1996).

442. "Reactions of Sodium/Antimony-Clusters with Molecular Chlorine in a Flow-tube-Reactor Coupled to a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer," A. Hartmann, A. W. Castleman, Jr. and K. G. Weil, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 100, 1763-1765 (1996).

443. "The Metastable Decay of Alkene Clusters After Photoionization," L. Poth, Q. Zhong, J. V. Ford, Z. Shi and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy 1996, (N. Winograd and J. Parks, Eds.), Institute of Physics Series, AIP Press, pp 383-386 (1997).

444. "Clusters in Intense Laser Fields: Multiple Ionization and Coulomb Explosion," E. M. Snyder, D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy 1996, (N. Winograd and J. Parks, Eds.), Institute of Physics Series, AIP Press, 379-382 (1997).

445. "Observation of Atomic-Like Resonance in Multiphoton Ionization Spectra of the Metal-Rich Magnesium-Oxide, Calcium-Oxide and Barium-Oxide Clusters," M. Foltin, H. Sakurai and A. W. Castleman, Jr., in Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy 1996, (N. Winograd and J. Parks, Eds.), Institute of Physics Series, AIP Press, pp 241-244 (1997).

446. "Photodissociation of Binary Metal Metallocarbohedrenes," B. D. May, S. E. Kooi, B. J. Toleno and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys 106, 2231-2238 (1997).

447. "Intracluster Polymerization Reactions of Alkene Cluster Ions," Q. Zhong, L. Poth, Z. Shi, J. V. Ford and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 101, 4203-4208 (1997).

448. "Gas Phase Reactions of ClONO2 with Cl-(D2O)n=0-3 and NO2-," H. Wincel, E. Mereand, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 8248-8254 (1997).

449. "Proton and Hydrogen Atom Transfer in Hydrogen Bonded Clusters: Ammonia as a Paradigm," E. M. Snyder and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 744-750 (1997).

450. "Oxidation Induced Ionization and Reactions of Metal Carbide Clusters (Nb, Zr, V, Ta)," H. T. Deng, K. P. Kerns, R. Bell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 167/168, 615-625 (1997).

451. "Covariance Mapping of Ammonia Clusters: Evidence of the Connectiveness of Clusters with Coulombic Explosion," D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer, S. Sato, S. A. Buzza, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3417-3423 (1997).

452. "A Technique for Efficiently Generating Bimetallic Clusters," R. L. Wagner, W. D. Vann, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Rev. Scientific Instruments 68, 3010 (1997).

453. "Titanium-Carbon Clusters: New Evidence for High Stability of Neutral Met-Cars," H. Sakurai and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7695-7698 (1997).

454. "Metallocarbohedrenes: The Quest for New Materials," B. J. Toleno, H. Sakurai, S. E. Kooi, J. L. Baling, M. E. Lyn, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc. Ninth International Conference on High Temperature Materials Chemistry (K. E. Spear, Ed.), Electrochemical Society, NJ, pp 637-647 (1997).

455. "Bimetallic Clusters: Insights into Reactions of Subnanoscale Surfaces," R. L. Wagner, W. D. Vann, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc. Ninth International Conference on High Temperature Materials Chemistry (K. E. Spear, Ed.), Electrochemical Society, NJ, pp 737-745 (1997).

456. "Nickel Oxide Cluster Reactions with Nitric Oxide," W. D. Vann, R. L. Wagner, A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc. Ninth International Conference on High Temperature Materials Chemistry (K. E. Spear, Ed.), Electrochemical Society, NJ, pp 731-736 (1997).

457. "Gas-Phase Reactions of Nickel Oxide Clusters with Nitric Oxide. 1. Formation of Nitrogen Dioxide on Nickel Oxide Cluster Anions," W. D. Vann, R. L. Wagner, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 1708-1718 (1998).

458. "Reactivities and Collision Induced Dissociation of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations," R. C. Bell, K. A. Zemski, K. P. Kerns, H. T. Deng, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 1733-1742 (1998).

459. "Dissociation Dynamics of the HCl Dimer Ion," Q. Zhong, L. Poth, J. V. Ford, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 305-310 (1998).

460. "Delayed Ionization in Transition Metal-Carbon Clusters: Further Evidence for the Role of Thermionic Emission," S. E. Kooi and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 108, 8864-8869 (1998).

461. "Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Coulomb Explosion Processes," (Also wrote the Foreword) L. Poth and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 102, 4075-4081 (1998).

462. "Structure, Reactivity, and Magnetism: Adsorption of NH3 around Nin," B. Chen, S. N. Khanna, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 304, 423-428 (1999).

463. "Ionization Potentials for the Titanium, Zirconium, and Mixed Metal Met-Cars," H. Sakurai and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 10486-10492 (1998).

464. "From Molecules to Materials: Current Trends and Future Directions," A. P. Alivisatos, P. F. Barbara, A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chang, D. A. Dixon, M. L. Klein, G. L. McLendon, J. S. Miller, M. A. Ratner, P. J. Rossky, S. I. Stupp, M. E. Thompson, Adv. Mater. 10, 1297-1336 (1998).

465. "Arresting Intermediate States in a Chemical Reaction on a Femtosecond Time Scale: Proton Transfer in Model Base Pairs," D. E. Folmer, L. Poth, E. S. Wisniewski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 1-7 (1998).

466. "The Formation of TiO(H2O)n+ Cluster Ions," H. T. Deng, K. P. Kerns, G. C. Guo, R. C. Bell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., special issue of Croatica Chemica Acta (N. Kallay, Ed.) The Croatian Chemical Society, Vol. 71, 1105-1116 (1998).

467. "Reactions of Iodine Oxide and Iodine Oxoacid Anion Species with Nitric Acid," R. S. MacTaylor, J. J. Gilligan, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 179/180, 327-335 (1998).

468. "Femtosecond Dissociation Dynamics of Methyl Iodide Clusters," L. Poth, Q. Zhong, J. V. Ford, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 4791-4797 (1998).

469. "Charge Stripping Effects from Highly Charged Iodine Ions Formed from Coulomb Explosion of CH3I Clusters," L. Poth, Q. Zhong, J. V. Ford, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. 239, 309-315 (1998).

470. "Gas-Phase Reactions of Nickel and Nickel-Rich Oxide Cluster Anions with Nitric Oxide. 2. The Addition of Nitric Oxide, Oxidation of Nickel Clusters, and the Formation of Nitrogen Oxide Anions," W. D. Vann, R. L. Wagner, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 8804-8811 (1998).

471. "Ten Years of Femtochemistry: A Historical Perspective," A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 102, 4021 (1998).

472. "Gas Phase Chemistry of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations. 1. Reactions with C2F6 and CH3-CF3," R. C. Bell, K. A. Zemski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 102, 8293-8299 (1998).

473. "Molecular Activation by Surface Coordination: A New Model for HCl Reactivity on Water-Ice Polar Stratospheric Clouds," R. S. MacTaylor, J. J. Gilligan, D. J. Moody and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 4196-4201 (1999).

474. "Probing Single Nanometer-Scale Particles with Scanning Tunneling Microsopcy and Spectroscopies," G. S. McCarty, J. C. Love, J. G. Kushmerick, L. F. Charles, C. D. Keating, B. J. Toleno, M. E. Lyn, A. W. Castleman, Jr., M. J. Natan, and P. S. Weiss, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 1 (4):459-466 (1999).

475. "Ultrafast Dissociation Dynamics of Acetone: A Revisit to the S1 State and 3s Rydberg State," Q. Zhong, L. Poth, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 110, 192-196 (1999).

476. "Gas-Phase Reactions of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Clusters with Nitrogen Oxides. 3. Reactions of Cations with Nitric Oxide," W. D. Vann, Rich Bell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem., 103, 10846-10850 (1999).

477. "Dissociation Pathways of Sulfur Dioxide Clusters and Mixed Sulfur Dioxide-Water Clusters," Q. Zhong, S. M. Hurley, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 185/186/187, 905-911 (1999).

478. "Consideration of the Bimolecular Reaction Rates of D+(D2O)n with HCl," R. S. MacTaylor, J. J. Gilligan, D. J. Moody and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 103, 2655-2658 (1999).

479. "Gas Phase Chemistry of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations. 2. Reactions with CH2F2," R. C. Bell, K. A. Zemski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 103, 2992-2998 (1999).

480. "The Interaction of Titanium-Carbon Cluster Fragments," D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer, S. Kooi, S. Sato, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., European Journal of Physics D., ISSPIC 1-4, 195-200, (1999).

481. "Femtosecond Laser Interactions with Methyl Iodide Clusters: Part 1. Coulomb Explosion at 795 nm," J. V. Ford, Q. Zhong, L. Poth, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6257-6267, (1999).

482. "Gas Phase Reactions of Cl2O with X-(D2O)n=0-4 (X = O, OD, O2, DO2, and O3)," E. Mereand, H. Wincel and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Sectrom. Ion Processes 182/183, 31-44 (1999).

483. "Gas Phase Reactions of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Clusters with Nitrogen Dioxide. 4. A Continued Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigation of Nickel Cluster Reactions with NOx Gases," W. D. Vann and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 103, 847-857 (1999).

484. "Reactivities of Tantalum Oxide Cluster Cations with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons," K. A. Zemski, R. C. Bell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 184, 119-128 (1999).

485. "Femtosecond Laser Interactions with Methyl Iodide Clusters: Part 2. Coulomb Explosion at 397 nm," J. V. Ford, L. Poth, Q. Zhong, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 192, 327-345 (1999).

486. "Cluster Ion Reactions: Insights into Processes of Atmospheric Significance," R. S. MacTaylor and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Atmos. Chem., 36, 23-63 (2000).

487. "Gas Phase Chemistry of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations. 3. Reactions with CCl4," R. C. Bell, K. A. Zemski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. 103, 1585-1591 (1999).

488. "Size Specific Reactivities of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations," R. C. Bell, K. A. Zemski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Cluster Sci., 10, 509-524, (1999).

489. "Latest Findings on the Photoionization of Met-Cars," H. Sakurai, S. E. Kooi, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Cluster Science, 10, 493-507, (1999).

490. "Photofragmentation of Vanadium Oxide Cations," S. E. Kooi and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem A, 103, 5671-5674 (1999).

491. "Adsorption of Methane Molecules on Neutral Titanium Met-Cars," H. Sakurai and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 111, 1462-1466 (1999).

492. "Femtochemistry Uncovers the Nature of Electron Transfer Reactions," A. W. Castleman, Jr., Q. Zhong, and S. M. Hurley, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 4219-4220 (1999).

493. "Vanadium Oxide Complexes in Room-Temperature Chloroaluminate Molten Salts," R. C. Bell, A. W. Castleman, Jr., and D. L. Thorn, Inorganic Chemistry, 38, 5709-5715 (1999).

494. "Femtosecond Cluster Studies of the Solvated 7-Azaindole Excited State Double Proton Transfer," D. E. Folmer, E. S. Wisniewski, S. M. Hurley, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 96, 12980-12986 (1999).

495. "Dehydrogenation of Ammonia by Early Transition Metals: Formation of Metal Nitride Clusters," S. E. Kooi and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett., 315, 49-54 (1999).

496. "Dynamics of the E State of HBr and DBr: Evidence for the Role of Tunneling," S. M. Hurley, Q. Zhong, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 112, 4644-4647 (2000).

497. "The Interplay Between the Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Aluminum Clusters: Model Systems as Building Blocks for Cluster Assembled Materials," B. D. Leskiw and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett., 316, 31-36, (2000).

498. "The Effects of Water Solvation of Double Proton Transfer Reactions," D. E. Folmer, E. S. Wisniewski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 489-494.

499. "Excited State Double Proton Transfer in the 7-Azaindole Dimer Revisited," D. E. Folmer, E. S. Wisniewski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Phys. Lett., 318, 637-643, (2000).

500. "Covariance Mapping Studies of 7-Azaindole Fragments," D. A. Card, D. E. Folmer, E. S. Wisniewski, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 25-30.

501. "Influence of Solvation on Ion Cluster Reacctions," J. J. Gilligan, B. D. Leskiw, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 503-509.

502. "The Interplay Between the Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Alumium Clusters," B. D. Leskiw and A. W. Castleman, In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 517-521.

503. "Reactions of Group V Transition Metal Oxide Clusters with 1,3-Butadiene," K. A. Zemski, R. C. Bell, and A. W. Castleman, In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 535-544.

504. "Bulk Production, Isolation, and Characterization of Metallocarbohedrenes," M. E. Lyn, G. S. McCarty, D. E. Bergeron, E. R. Statz, A. D. Korman, P. S. Weiss, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 455-460.

505. "Ionization Dynamics of Transition Metal - Carbon Clusters," S. E. Kooi, B. D. Leskiw, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., In Cluster and Nanostructure In Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces, Editors: P. Jena, S. N. Khanna, B. K. Rao, (World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong 2000), 511-516.

506. "Reactions of Tantalum Oxide Cluster Cations with 1-Butene, 1,3-Butadiene, and Benzene," K. A. Zemski, R. C. Bell, and A. W. Castleman, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 5732-5741 (2000).

507. "An Ultrafast Glimpse of Cluster Solvation Effects on Reaction Dynamics," Q. Zhong and A. W. Castleman, Jr., Chem. Rev., 100, 4039-4057, (2000).